Most wine is produced with the expectation it is consumed relatively quickly after it is taken to market, but what about the storage of wine for the future?
Wine is sensitive to changes in temperature, and so it must be stored long term at a stable temperature. A natural wine cellar in the basement of a building is less affected by the change in seasonal weather so is ideal for this, with some modern homes include wine rooms with climate control, simulating the stability of temperature.
When wine is stored at a lower temperature, say 10° C, it causes the wine to develop at a slower rate, with a warmer room increasing the speed the wine matures.
Additionally, wine requires an element of humidity when it contains a natural cork stop. In a low humidity environment, the cork can dry out and crack, allowing air to penetrate thought, although horizontal storage where the wine is in contact with the cork provides moisture from the inside. Should air manage to penetrate the cork seal, it will most likely cause the wine to oxidise prematurely, giving an off taste know as “corked”.
Sparkling wines tend to age better if they are stored upright because the internal pressure generated by the trapped gases provides enough humidity and protection from oxidisation.